Heaton (HMOs & Tyneside flats): Postcode NE6 5LW
South Heaton is an area dominated by private renting and terraces. It has proved very popular with students and couples under 30 as it is a more affordable place to live than Jesmond and the city centre. The main commercial streets are Chillingham Road and Heaton Road with a range of shops, food and drink outlets.
South Heaton ward is predominately flats and terraces with an above average number of 16 to 24 year olds, but North Heaton ward also has significant numbers of interwar and post World War 2 semi-detached homes and more families with children, for example at High Heaton where the housing was originally connected to Heaton High Pit (coal mining).
Compare different parts of Heaton:
Historically Heaton was a semi-rural mining area and became urbanised with the coming of the railways. The park was gifted by the industrialist William Armstrong who owned land in the area. Heaton was until recently the home of the Parsons engineering works which made turbines. Much of the housing that still makes up South Heaton was built at the height of Newcastle’s economic power between 1880 and 1910. The total number of houses in Heaton parish grew from around 200 in 1880 to 2,500 in 1900. Vision of Britain Heaton The 1921 OS map shows South Heaton is fairly built-up, but that the areas around Heaton High Pit and High Heaton were yet to be built on.
- OS England and Wales: Durham Sheet III 1921
- Old pictures of Heaton including an aerial shot of High Heaton’s semis under construction http://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/lifestyle/nostalgia/old-pictures-heaton-down-years-4311072
- Aerial view of Heaton showing terraces http://www.flickr.com/photos/newcastlelibraries/4090278743/in/set-72157622716457015/
Many areas with a grid-iron street pattern and traditional rows of brick homes have been cleared and redeveloped, such as at Cruddas Park in Elswick and at Byker. However in Heaton the street pattern and the nineteenth-century built environment remain with terraces including Tyneside flats as well as more upmarket conventional terraced houses. In contrast, at High Heaton crescents were laid out adjoining Newton Road in a pattern according with general town planning principles in the 1920s (a contrast evident in the two aerial views below).
Students and HMOs
The influx of students in parts of Newcastle, due to landlords seeking to maximise income by marketing these lets as individual rooms with shared kitchen and bathroom in a shared flat, has caused tensions in parts of Heaton and Jesmond. As a result HMO (Houses in Multiple Occupation) regulations were introduced by the city council in 2011 in an ‘article 4 direction’.
HMO certificates have operated successfully in the whole of Scotland since 2000 (Civic Government Act Scotland 1982 amended in 2000). However, prior to 2000 planning permission was required to turn a flat into a house of multiple occupation. An HMO certificate generally offers the prospective tenant an assurance that the property being rented meets certain requirements in terms of ventilation, heating and fire safety and limits the number of occupants in relation to the space available. In Scotland the landlord must be ‘a fit and proper person’ and manage the property properly; there are annual inspections to check the property (2006 Act). Basically the legislation exists to protect tenants and make sure the accommodation is of a good standard. HMO legislation was introduced as a statutory instrument throughout Scotland following a horrific fatal fire in a student flat in Glasgow in 1999 where the landlord had not met change of use planning permission rules.
- Scottish Government guide to HMOs http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/07/19733/40897
- Shelter Scotland HMOs http://scotland.shelter.org.uk/get_advice/advice_topics/renting_rights/houses_in_multiple_occupation_hmos
- No permission for fire death flat (BBC News) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/933689.stm
In England the law is less stringent and a landlord must have registered a home as an HMO with the council only if the property is at least three storeys high and five or more unrelated people live in it (2004 Act). In addition to this, the local authority can choose to vary the powers according to perceived need and designate areas. Effectively the city council can choose to limit the number in an area. The areas in Newcastle this applies to include parts of Heaton, High West Jesmond, Jesmond, North Jesmond, South Gosforth, Sandyford and Spital Tongues. As the rules apply only to certain areas and types of let, landlords in England tend to view HMOs as an unreasonable additional cost and have contested the requirements.
- HMOs in Newcastle http://www.newcastle.gov.uk/planning-and-buildings/planning-applications/planning-guidance/hmo-legislation-2011
- Shelter England HMOs http://england.shelter.org.uk/get_advice/private_renting/private_renting_agreements/shared_houses_and_flats
- Landlords in Newcastle demand £750k refund (Newcastle Chronicle) http://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/landlords-newcastle-demand-750k-refund-6952221
The Tyneside flat was the dominant housing form constructed at the time when the industrial centres on Tyneside were growing most rapidly. They can still be found in South Heaton but once dominated the streetscape on both sides of the Tyne. They were in fact an improvement on earlier forms of urban dwellings which included back-to-back houses. The street pattern was a grid-iron one which made use of every bit of space for development, but paid little attention to the contours of the land on which they were built. Most of these flats date from the latter quarter of the nineteenth century until the onset of the First World War in 1914. The Tyneside flats were built by speculators looking to invest, rather than factory owners, and rented out privately by their proprietors.
The flats were built with pairs of front doors to the street. Built as terraces, one of each pair of doors led to an upstairs flat while the other led into the ground-floor flat. Most had two or three main rooms and a scullery. The upper flats typically had an enclosed rear staircase leading to the yard. At the rear there would have been a shared or split yard with dry or water closets, a coal house and perhaps a wash house. Each yard had a door leading into a back lane. Many streets of flats were demolished in the 1970s but those in Heaton have survived (see Hope image taken in the West End).
Generally Tyneside flats were built to be let for the lowest possible market rents and had little in the way of decorative features or small front gardens. The example below from Heaton is perhaps typical of a more basic style that would have predominated in much of the city of Newcastle and in surrounding urban areas north and south of the River Tyne.